Thursday, September 3, 2020

Gambling Addiction: Compulsive or Pathological Gambling Essay -- Compu

I am keen on how an individual could mentally and truly want to bet. It intrigues me that an impulse could transform into physical need and agony if the impulse isn’t satisfied. This could really be named a dependence, which a few people would likewise characterize it as an infection. Individuals bet for a wide range of reasons. A few people do it for the fervor in which it will cause them to feel an arrival of adrenaline. Another motivation behind why a few people do it is on the grounds that they are extremely serious and they need to feel the eruption of vitality that they would potentially get from beating different players or even the seller. Something else that pulls them in would be the danger, all things considered, They make a high dollar wager and the minutes in the middle of that wager being set and the result send a rush all through their body, thinking about what the result will be. A few people accept that in the event that they bet, they will have the option to illuminate money related issues, for example, not having the option to take care of month to month tabs, divorce settlement, kid support, abandonment, and so on. Others discover betting can be a way that they run from pressure and they feel that they don’t want to stress over life’s issues. With betting being a habit, individuals will rationalize concerning why they do it. Betting is a ton like drinking liquor. A few people contend that doing any betting, such as drinking any liquor, is an awful thing and will just prompt issues that will develop and turn out to be a lot of more regrettable. Others contend that doing reasonable betting with some restraint, such as drinking with some restraint, is totally adequate and a sheltered activity. They do, nonetheless, have a few principles that make the reasonable betting seen â€Å"okay† to them. Here are a portion of the principles. A few people accept that you have to sta... you wish there was something more that you could do to help. It is difficult for individuals to confess to having this issue so there are most likely more individuals out there then we could ever know. Works Cited Establishment, M. H. (2011). Betting. Recovered from Mental Health Foundation: well-being a-z/G/betting/ Wellbeing, W. (2009). Betting. Recovered from Women's Health: well-being/gambling.html Jean Segal, M. S. (2013, July 13). Betting Addiction and Problem Gambling: Warning Signs and How to Get Help. Recovered from Helpguide: Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, M. (2013, Novemeber 26). Betting Addiction (Compulsive or Pathological Gambling). Recovered from MedicineNet:

Saturday, August 22, 2020

How useful are the views of Anzac soldiers at Gallipoli suggested in Source A, B and C Free Essays

All the sources are valuable in light of the fact that despite the fact that they may not be dependable, they show the people’s assessment of the Gallipoli crusade. Sources that show people groups feeling can be utilized to investigate how the welds felt all through the wars. Source A was distributed in 1916, only one year after the Gallipoli crusade. We will compose a custom paper test on How helpful are the perspectives on Anzac troopers at Gallipoli recommended in Source A, B and C or on the other hand any comparable theme just for you Request Now This makes it an essential source, which could imply that its increasingly solid as it was composed closer the time, and subtleties have had less time to be overlooked. It was made on the Gallipoli peninsular, which shows that the craftsman had an observer account this would mean he was depending on his own insight not somebody else’s. In spite of the fact that it as made by an Australian craftsman, which may mean it, is one-sided or misrepresented in light of the fact that he should make the Australians look better, it shows both the great and terrible side of the war. The kid's shows show two ANZAC fighters as they looked during the Gallipoli crusade. The primary animation shows a man in a huge over coat, shoes that are to large for him, a weapon, he’s yawning and has thin legs. The enormous coat and shoes that are to huge for him propose that the provisions aren’t traversing and they are low on assets so he needs to utilize anything he can get. The thin legs likewise show that there is an absence of food and that the fighters are feeble. I know from my own insight that provisions weren’t overcoming and that food supplies were extremely low. Additionally there were thousand of flies, which contaminated the food so the little food that was left was not consumable. The title â€Å"another miserable dawn† shows the troopers feel that they are not getting anyplace and that they won't progress anyplace with the knew day. The source is very dependable and is helpful in light of the fact that it shows a genuine record of the soldier’s time in Gallipoli and isn't over overstated to make them look better as it shows the positives and negatives. In this manner it very well may be use to show how the conditions influenced the officers, it likewise shows what the troopers resembled during the war. Source B is valuable since it gives a recorded record. Anyway it possibly inclination as an Australian composes it and he should make his military look better. It is an optional source so it may be increasingly solid on the grounds that there may be more sources accessible. Likewise the individuals who have composed the sources he’s put together his book with respect to have had the opportunity to recuperate from the stun they may have endured and compose the sources all the more precisely. I know some portion of it is honest and is solid, as I realize that the resident fighters were prepared since the beginning for military. It is likewise like the inclination in Britain †† to be deserted was unbelievable. So we realize that this part is truth and dependable. Be that as it may, some portion of the source is problematic as it is only one man’s sentiment (John Kegan). â€Å"New Zealanders aptitudes with the rifle and spade would win them a notoriety for being the best warriors in the war during the twentieth Cent ury. † We realize this isn't accurate as the New Zealanders lost their fight at the Gallipoli crusade to the Turks. As the British and French soldiers won the greater part of their fights during the first and Second World War it could be contended that they were the more grounded and better soldiers of the twentieth Century. It likewise says in the source â€Å"†¦ ormidable hostile force, as the Turks were soon to discover† we realize this isn't accurate as they lost to the Turks. I likewise know the arrivals at Sulva inlet turned out badly for the ANZAC troops and furthermore the arrivals at ANZAC bay and Cape Helles sea shore fizzled. This shows they can't be the â€Å"formidable hostile power† the creator describes them and that he is possibly misrepresenting what happened to make it his soldiers sound better. This source can be utilized as a knowledge with respect to what happen when the new Zealanders got called up to war, and what the New Zealand individuals thought of their soldiers. Source C is composed by a correspondent, yet it isn't clear regarding what nation he is from, the manner in which he discusses the Australians recommend that he isn't from Australia, however is dazzled by them. He appears to over misrepresent the part they played in the war and the manner in which they managed it. This would propose the source is problematic as it is his own sentiment not established truths. This source shows what a few people thought of the Australians â€Å"it was incredible to watch them as they went†. It shows the high good and ANZAC soul that was available through the crusade, I realize this is most likely obvious on the grounds that is fundamentally the same as what occurred in Britain all through the first and second war there was ostensibly high British soul. It additionally has some mistaken focuses I. e. ‘absolutely unaffected by the bullets’ †this can't be valid the same number of troops were executed by projectiles. I realize that there were 200,000 united losses and a portion of these were from the ANZAC troops, hence they weren’t unaffected by slugs. This source is best utilized as a supposition and knowledge into what was thought of the Australians as opposed to as solid record of what really occurred. All in all Sources A, B and C are helpful in various manners. Source An is the most solid and exact record of what really occurred and could be utilized to show what really occurred. Source B and C is best utilized as assessments of what occurred, where reality may have been misrepresented or mutilated. It tends to be utilized to show a record from the ANZAC perspective and how their kin felt towards the battle. The most effective method to refer to How helpful are the perspectives on Anzac officers at Gallipoli proposed in Source A, B and C, Papers

Friday, August 21, 2020

Interactive illustration in print media targeting children's Thesis

Intuitive representation in print media focusing on kids' market(under12) - Thesis Example Against the scenery of this data, it won’t be a distortion to express that the expanding complexity of the advanced market has caught a significant portion of the children’s fragment, along these lines in a roundabout way pushing them away from the regular vehicle of perusing for example the print media. Besides, the improvement of web, and the developing reasonableness just as simplicity of home figuring has prompted a further development in expanding the engaging quality of the intelligent computerized media. Youngsters today, have a wide assortment of choices available to them regarding perusing and learning, with web and intuitive computerized media framing a tremendous lump of their cutting edge youth exercises. Thinking about the gigantic potential and ubiquity of the intuitive computerized media, and the way that it has now entered instructive settings, the importance of intelligent print media appears to have taken a rearward sitting arrangement. Be that as it m ay, the significance and believability of the print media in altering the social and instructive encounters of youthful perusers can't be totally discounted. It is by virtue of this very explanation that teachers, specialists, content makers just as approach creators are presently indicating an expanded intrigue and concern with respect to the strength of intuitive computerized media and its imaginable effect on the intrusive experience and comprehension of basic social ideas of youngsters. They have focused on that the restoration of the print media is fundamental as it has a gigantic potential to animate the savvy person, passionate just as physical improvement of youngsters. The one of a kind attributes that the print media offers can go far in helping youngsters in molding their comprehension of their general surroundings. It can likewise help in the improvement of an all around planned intelligent print media can help in causing a feeling of genuine learning among the youthful perusers. This paper on intelligent representation in print media illuminates different parts of the print media and its conceivable effect on the youthful perusers. In the process it follows the underlying foundations of this medium and outlines its advancement into an exceptionally intelligent medium which is explicitly intended to invigorate a sharp feeling of comprehension and development among the intended interest group, for example small kids (Schumm, 2006; Wooten, 2009). History of delineation in print media focusing on youngsters The market for children’s books was for all intents and purposes non-existent in the days of yore. The vast majority of the image books before the sixteenth or seventeenth century were essentially structured and focused at the grown-up crowd. Youngsters were not given due significance as an autonomous market section and henceforth there were once in a while any books focused on explicitly at them, albeit an advantaged not many for example fo r the most part kids from rich privileged societies of the general public were presented to and/or approached lit up original copies (Pope, 2010; Cullinan, Person, 2005). Figure: A case of a lit up original copy for kids According to Aries, the specialists during the tenth and the eleventh hundreds of years barely showed any enthusiasm for representing for youngsters, as they didn't think of them as a significant section of perusers. He

Monday, June 8, 2020

A Case Of Earthquake In Hokkaido - Free Essay Example

Throughout centuries in our nations have experienced different natural disasters that have required recovery and creating new emergency assistance program. On September 6, 2018, in northern island of Hokkaido, Japan an earthquake magnitude of 6.7 reaching the maximum of 7 on Japans seismic intensity scale in some areas. According to International Civil Defense Organization (2018), earthquake or seismic tremor is a good description of the natural phenomenon which suddenly strikes an area causing damage that varies according to the intensity of the quake and local geological conditions.   Earthquakes are also defined as, sudden slippages or movements in a portion of the earths crust accompanied by a series of vibrations. Many times, earthquakes happen without warning in areas all around the world. Furthermore, earthquakes have more natural disaster consequences such as, after-tremors, which tend to occur with hours, days, or months from the initial earthquake, earthquakes may also trigger volcanic eruptions, landslides, and avalanches. One of the most common consequences of earthquakes are Tsunamis, due to collapsing sea or lake beds which result from earthquakes or volcanic eruption.   During a strong earthquake, the suggested preventative methods if located outside, be aware of collapsing buildings and falling materials and infrastructures, it is also suggested avoiding the use of telephones unless necessary.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The earthquake hits Japan northern island of Hokkaido, the quake centered east of the city of Tomakomai. Prior to earthquake hitting Japan, during that same week the country had battered by deadly typhoons, flooding, and a record heatwave (Reuters, 2018). Jebi described to be the deadliest typhoon to hit Japan in 25 years, which brought the earthquake to its heels killed at least 10 people and caused widespread damage, closure of Japans busiest airport several days, and disturbances. Considering the previous natural disasters that occurred, as a country Japan should have been prepared or possibly conducted studies of possible natural disaster occurring. The previous natural disasters could have the possible warning that the earthquake would occur. Therefore, warning signs and possible prevention could have been provided to the population of Hokkaido, due to the recent, natural disasters. Additionally, the results of the earthquake, caused loss of power supply for nearly 3 million people, also different municipalities in Hokkaido reported areas where water service was not functioning. Approximately, 250 hospitals were running on generators, Hokkaido Electric Power, the company that operated the plant, had not detected any changes in radiation levels. Power was not restored for about a week or more. On Thursday, September 13, 2018 power was restored to approximately 1.4 million households. Furthermore, the disaster resulted in approximately 40 people missing and more than 150 people injured by the earthquake and four deaths occurred near the epicenter of the earthquake. The aftermath of Hokkaido resulted in landslides that buried houses and paralyzed Hokkaido. After, the earthquake authorities did urge residents to pay full attention for possible to seismic activity caused by the earthquake. The earthquake also caused loss of power supply for nearly 3 million people, also different municipalities in Hokkaido reported areas where water service was not functioning.   Interesting facts about this natural disaster was the quick response of different emergency management agency for example, defense force soldiers were deployed to help with rescue operations and helicopter crews were also dispatched. An interesting fact of this event is The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has published a safety guide for earthquakes and their aftermath. As previously mentioned, Japan is considered at high risk for natural disasters, as well as, nuclear accidents. Thus, it is crucial for Japan to have an emergency management assistance program created. As a result, in 2007, the governments Fire and Disaster Management Agency launched what became extremely popular in Japan the J-Alert, a satellite-based system that enables local authorities to transmit warning messages directly to local media and citizens (J-Alert: disaster warning technology in Japan, 2016). According to Japanese officials it takes about 1 second to inform local officials, and between 4 and 20 secon ds to relay the message to citizens. All warnings, except for severe weather warnings, are broadcast in five languages: Japanese, English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese (J-Alert: disaster warning technology in Japan, 2016).

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Body Image Essay - 636 Words

Body Image Do you look in the mirror and pick yourself apart? Do you constantly worry about what you look like? You might be thinking, â€Å"Sure, no big deal.† But, the way you look at yourself and how you talk to yourself on a daily basis can have a huge impact on your life. One of the largest influence on teenage girls is the media.The media pushes body image, clothes, and fast food. At the same time they push weight lose with unrealistic results. The combination of all the above leads teenage girls down the road to eating disorders and a confusing self-image When you are not happy with who you are it is hard to be a good friend and a good student. If your mind is on what you dont like about yourself and your body, then†¦show more content†¦Girls are taught from a young age that the key to success is beauty. The commercial media, for example, pays no attention to girls minds and life goals. Instead, they show us Naomi Campbell, Nikki Taylor, and other popular models, telling us that this is what you should go for. As the well-known Body Shop slogan says, There are three billion women who dont look like supermodels and only eight who do. Yet millions of women skip meals, skip dessert, and treat food as their enemy just to look like the impossibly thin women on the covers of todays magazine. Even those who love and support you might be accidentally leading you into hurtful behaviors. When you see a parent or loved one going on strict diets or exercising a lot, you might feel that what they are doing is normal. You might even be encouraged then to diet and exercise as much as they do. While they think they are trying to teach you good habits, they might actually be teaching you to do things that hurt your body. If you look in any nutrition book, you will find something about Recommended Daily Allowances of vitamins and minerals. Now, look at the labels on the food you eat. Often, when you go on diets, you eat foods that are low in the nutrients you need like calcium and iron. These things keep you energetic and strong. Your body does not work as well without them. While calories might seem bad to a dieter, when you have less caloriesShow MoreRelatedBody Image And Body Images1896 Words   |  8 Pagesfeelings of body image. Many people think a dancer’s personal vision of their body image is an important part of their psychological health and well-being and can help or hinder their dance performance. But what is body image? Body image is both perceptual (what we see) and affective (how we feel about what we see) (Rudd Carter, 2006). Cash, (2004) referred body image to the multifaceted psychological experience of embodiment, especially one’s physical appearance and encompasses one’s body-relatedRead MoreEating Disorders And Body Image Essay1115 Words   |  5 PagesKarlye Weber AMST 3723 Dr. Carreiro 15 November 2016 Typically when covering the topic of eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction athletes and young women are the center of research and are stereotyped to be the only groups of people who suffer from self-image issues. In â€Å"The Hidden Faces of Eating Disorders and Body Image,† authors Justine Reels and Katherine Beals look to breakdown the stereotypes and dig deeper into the issues that cross over the borders of ethnicity, age and genderRead MoreThe Body Image Movement Aims Essay1780 Words   |  8 Pages2014). Movements have purposes, even when these have to do with transforming members themselves rather then the worlds outside the movement (Jasper 2014). The body image movement aims to improve the relationship between women and their bodies in a more positive manner (Dove 2014). Currently, women are suffering from an increase in body self-consciousness as a result of medias role regarding beauty ideals. Researchers have found that women worldwide do not view themselves as beautiful and are consistentlyRead MoreBad Body Image Days Or Bad Self Image1235 Words   |  5 PagesBad body image days or bad self-image days, in general, are something that every person at some point in time endures. Everyone has their insecurities and some days these insecurities  strike out to us more so than other days. Being our own worst critic, the days you wake up swearing you gained 10 pounds over night or the days you wake up shocked to see your face as one inflamed  pimple can be extremely  hindering. We all love morning stomach but some days you wake up bloated and feeling a tad moreRead MoreThe Impact Of Fitspiration Images On College Women s Body Image1433 Words   |  6 Pages​It is undeniable that the body changes many times throughout the length of adulthood. Education is one indicator that a person has began their journey into adulthood. Attending a University is a time when many men and women set out on their own to find their own identity and place in the world. Part of that identity is body image. Tiggemann and Zaccardo (2015) conducted research that aimed to investigate the impact of fitspiration images on college women’s body image. Participants included 130 femaleRead MoreBody Image : The African American Culture1667 Words   |  7 PagesBody Image in the African American Culture Today we live in a society that over the years has become so obsessed with body image and how an individual should look. Different cultures have different standards and norms that help to define their ideal body image. African Americans because of their differences in culture have gone against most cultural norms and have set their own definitions of beauty, body image, and body satisfaction. Because of these key differences, the African American communityRead MorePositive Body Image Group Essay1234 Words   |  5 Pages Body image disturbance, or BID, can have negative effects on individuals and can be found among many different ages of women. In fact, BID can even be found in girls as young as age seven. Many negative effects have been attributed to BID, such as increased anxiety, stress, and depression, which can cause issues both psychologically and physically (Devaraj Lewis, 2010). Therefore, there is a need to help women combat these negative effects of body image disturbance and help maintain a more positiveRead MoreNegative Body Image of Women in the Media2325 Words   |  10 Pagesside effects resulting in low self-esteem, eating disorders, or depression. Media projects images of women that have been surgically or technologically edited, these projections are causing negative effects. These unrealistic women have a greater effect on young women today, society has enveloped this idea that we have to meet this certain image. We have become so overwhelmed with the stereotypical image causi ng great disapproval for women who are slightly overweight. Everyone wants to look theirRead MoreThe Media And It s Impute On Body Image1850 Words   |  8 Pages2015 The Media and It’s Impute on Body Image There are no questions to whether the media has influenced the self-consciousness people have on their body or not. Whether it is the front of a magazine cover or in a film or television show, the selection of models or actors are primarily thin or fit leading readers and viewers to worry or want to change the way their body looks. Body image is the way one sees oneself and imagine how one looks. Having a positive body image means that most of the time someoneRead MoreSocietal Expectations And Media Influences Of Body Image Essay1769 Words   |  8 PagesExpectations and Media Influences of Body Image Numerous studies have been conducted on the various aspects of the impact and societal expectations held by north America and the impacts that it has on today’s youth. Body Image is a picture or mental image of your own body and how you view it.However, during my research process, there were very few sources that supported the media’s projection of body image. As we explore all the aspects of what body image really is and what impact may the media

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effects Of Social Networking On College Grades - 1069 Words

I. Introduction – Cigarettes and alcohol are not the only items that people can be addicted to. Some people can be addicted to gambling or exercising. Others can be addicted to social networking. The pros of social networking and the entertainment value is outweighed by the cons. Social networking is fun but it can be harmful and addictive. People have always needed to communicate. Texting, face time, social networking are new convenient ways to communicate. These new forms of communication are not perfect and can have bad effects on the user. Social networking is a distraction that negatively impacts social skills, grammar, and test grades of youth. II. Social networking has negative effects such as bad grammar that will affect college grades (Ives). Students that use social networking have problems with grammar and spelling (Ives). Social networking is responsible and for bad spelling and grammar. Social networking is addictive and the people who use it receive insufficient grammar as a result. Spelling has an equally important effect. Spelling is an easy way to see the brain power of an individual. Spelling is very important in high school and college as well as your whole life. Additionally spelling affects the quality someone’s school years. Grammar will directly affect the outcome of grades in school and in college. Good grammar is a sign of professionalism. Bad spelling due to texting and social networking has been linked to low college entrance exam scores (Ives).IfShow MoreRelatedEffects of Social Networking on Undergraduate Student’s Grades1550 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Social networking has made its way into American culture quickly and is more prevalent now than ever before. Many people have different views on the relevance and benefits of social networking, whether they are positive or negative standpoints. Nevertheless, social media and networking is a part of our American lifestyles as a whole. As a Computer Information Systems major and studying the foundations and composition of computer applications, I would like to research the effects that socialRead MoreThe Effects Of Social Media On Our Society1559 Words   |  7 Pagesdeny that social media has taken over conventional media in the world today. We can easily see that they have impacts on our society. Since the introduction of social network sites years ago, to communicate with friends and family has been easy once you have access to internet.The definition of social media is the relationship that exist between network of people (Walter Riviera, 2004). In the last ten years, the online world has changed dramatically. Thanks to the ivention of social media, youngRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography1438 Words   |  6 PagesKainth Sheridan College Professor: Chrisoula Benak Date: Friday, March 15th. 2013 Jung, Brain. â€Å"The Negative Effect of Social Media on Society and Individuals | Small Business - Retrieved March 15 2013 lt;;. This is an article which talks about how the social networking system, although looks really great is in the same way has a negative effect in the societyRead MoreLiterature Review : A Research Essay1741 Words   |  7 PagesDevelopments and Social Networking Sites When Hartshorne, Ajjan, and Cao (2016) conducted their study, they observed that there has been a significant increase in the number of social networking websites today. Indeed, Jacobsen and Forste (2011) argue that social networking websites have become an international phenomenon in recent years, with many individuals, especially teens and young adults becoming obsessed and addicted to this relatively new sensation. Teenagers and young adults use these social networkingRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society1359 Words   |  6 PagesPeople may say social media is good for you but is it really? Everyday, everywhere I always see people on social media calling people bad names, not being able to communicate face to face with each other. Social media, social media, social media†¦ oh what is has done to the world, so many students grades have dropped, criminals PROMOTE crimes. Ultimately, what is at stake here is social media will one day take over the world. Peopleâ€⠄¢s safety will be in danger, crimes will increase, people will getRead MoreThe Impact Of Social Media On Academic Performance Essay1401 Words   |  6 PagesMedia, 2012) and college students (Junco, 2011) actively engaged. However, as results the authors found that corroborating the work on the impact of social media on academic performance, participants who accessed Facebook one or more times during the study period had lower grade point averages. Furthermore, Junco (2011) discovered that sharing links and checking up with friends on Facebook more often predicted higher college grades; making status updates more often predicted lower grades; and that overallRead MoreThe Old College Try : A Young Age1020 Words   |  5 PagesThe Old College Try From a young age, people learn the importance of structure to succeed. As early as kindergarten, schools teach students how to build healthy habits, such as organization skills, time management, and commitment to thoroughly completing tasks to the best of their ability. The quality of being organized sets the foundation for success. The motto â€Å"give it the old college try† is commonly used when referring to the amount of effort and willpower required to succeed in college. Some studentsRead MoreOverview of Social Networking1393 Words   |  6 Pagessuch as lower grades, job stability, cyberbullying, sexting, and it can harm college admission. I have known a family friend that has experienced social networking in a horrible way, which has messed with his dreams and life goals. Social networking has a negative influence on our lives, causing many various problems in our community. Social networks are internet sites that help people interact with each other, and help deliver information such as pictures and videos. Social networking started in 1971Read MoreThe Effects of Social Media on College Freshmen Essay1284 Words   |  6 PagesSocial media is defined as websites and applications used for social networking, in other words it is a way for people to interact and express themselves without being face to face. Social media has become a large part of the life of teenagers, who make up most of the population of people who are subjected to using social media in their daily lives. Many college students are faced with balancing their social lives with school and even athletics making priorities a big dilemma for them. College studentsRead MoreThe Effects Of Social Networking On Academic And Social Aspects Of College Students?1440 Words   |  6 PagesWhat are the effects of using social networking in academic and social aspects of college students? Over the years, social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram among others have caused a great impact to the world. The new ways of social relations that causing a transformation in the habits and customs of society. This huge popularity to can be connected and share a lot of information within seconds with the outside world has made a tremendous impact, especially on college students. There

Uncertainty Reduction Theory free essay sample

Soumya Prem Roll no: 20120119150 Uncertainty reduction theory Charles Berger and Richard Calabrese This theory explains how communication is used to reduce the uncertainty among people when they meet each other for the first time. It is assumed that when strangers meet, their primary objective is to reduce uncertainty about the other person involved in the interaction. We always want to reduce the uncertainties about our surroundings and the people in it since being uncertain about anything is not a pleasant feeling to have. Berger proposed that there are 3 factors that influence whether people will want to work towards reducing uncertainties about a certain situation. 1. Anticipation of future interaction – You will try to reduce uncertainties if you know there is a possibility of meeting this person again. Therefore, you are more likely to use uncertainty reduction behaviour when you meet someone at a party that you might be interested in. 2. Incentive value – If this person is capable to doing something for you or against you even, then there are higher chances of you trying to reduce uncertainties. 3. Deviance If the person behaves oddly and shows some bizarre characteristics, you are likely to use uncertainty reduction. For example if you meet a new prospective client whom you have to meet in the future and could give your company a new project and has a strange fascination for the colour purple, you would be interested in communicating more to fit the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle together to get to know who she really is. There are 3 ways to seek information from the other person- 1. Passive Strategy Observing someone without being observed 2. Active Strategy Asking a third party for more information 3. Interactive Strategy Obtaining information directly by asking questions and offering personal information about yourself A demonstration of this can be seen in this scene from a very famous Hollywood movie ‘Hitch’ where Will Smith’s character tries to seek more information about Sara Melas at a bar where in he uses all the strategies mentioned above for interaction. http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=x-CBqcb0Kcc Berger proposes a series of 8 axioms to explain the connection between uncertainty and eight key variables of relationship development which are 1. Verbal communication -As the amount of verbal communication increases, the level of uncertainty decreases. As uncertainty decreases, the amount of verbal communication increases. 2. Non verbal warmth As nonverbal warmth increases, uncertainty levels decreases in a situation. In turn a decrease in uncertainty level will cause an increase in nonverbal warmth. 3. Information seeking –When uncertainty is more, the tendency to seek information increases. As uncertainty decreases, information seeking behaviour decreases. 4. Self disclosure – When uncertainty levels are high, the levels of intimacy in communication is less. As uncertainty reduces the level of intimacy increases. 5. Reciprocity – Higher the uncertainty, higher the reciprocity. Lower the uncertainty, lower the reciprocity. 6. Similarity Similarities between people decreases uncertainty, while dissimilarities increases uncertainty. 7. Liking Increase in uncertainty decreases liking and decrease in uncertainty increases liking. 8. Shared networks – If there are shared networks among the two people like common friends then uncertainty is less and vice versa. Uncertainty reduction theory in movies – Meet the parents Meeting someone for the first time can be a nerve racking experience for many. In this movie Greg is meeting his girlfriend’s parents for the first time. Jack, Pam’s father is overly protective of his daughter. He constantly mocks Greg’s choice of occupation as a nurse and makes him uncomfortable in a lot of situations with an intention to keep him away from his daughter. Greg tries to impress Jack from time to time but nothing seems to work in his favour because Jack does not show any liking towards him. Jack’s verbal output, nonverbal cues and constant information seeking causes Greg to fear him. Consequently, there is never a stable interaction between Jack and Greg as there is a lot of uncertainty between them. Applications of Uncertainty Reduction theory In an article titled ‘Interactive Uncertainty Reduction Strategies and Verbal Affection in Computer-Mediated Communication’ published by Marjolijn L. Antheunis, Alexander P. Schouten, Patti M. Valkenburg and Jochen Peter, they investigated the language-based strategies that computer-mediated communication (CMC) users employ to reduce uncertainty in the absence of nonverbal cues. CMC condition had i. Higher levels of intimacy than face to face condition ii. More affection statements than face to face condition iii. There was no observed differences between text-only CMC and visual CMC condition In another article titled ‘The Acquaintanceship Process: An Examination of Uncertainty, Information Seeking, and Social Attraction during Initial Conversation’ published by William Douglas, the relationship between uncertainty reduction, information seeking, and liking during unstructured initial interaction was studied. Analyses showed that Significant linear and quadratic trends in the uncertainty scores. Global uncertainty-related to uncertainty about the specific person after interaction and the amount of uncertainty reduction that they achieved. Uncertainty and liking were inversely correlated both before and after interaction. Global uncertainty -predictive of amount of information seeking Specific uncertainty -unrelated to the frequency of both asking questions and disclosing. Critique point of view It can be argued that reducing uncertainty about the self and another in an initial encounter might not be an individuals primary concern. A more primary goal would be to maximize relational outcomes. It is not always necessary to reduce uncertainties for obtaining your incentive from the other person. Also a want for information rather than lack of information is what promotes information-seeking in initial encounters with other people. Also one of the axioms states that as the level of uncertainty reduces, liking increases. This may not be necessarily true since there can be a situation where in after communicating you come to realise that the other person possesses qualities that you are not fond of or comfortable about. In this case, there will not be an increase in liking rather there is a possibility of the opposite, i. e. a decrease in liking. Scholarly article sources: http://crx. sagepub. com/content/21/2/154. abstract http://crx. sagepub. com/content/early/2011/06/01/0093650211410420. abstract Other sources: http://www. wikipedia. org/ http://wikis. lib. ncsu. edu/index. php/Uncertainty_Reduction_Theory http://www. youtube. com/